Unattainable “cranes”: the territory, who were unable to join the Russian Empire
Peter dreamed about Madagascar. A “Hawaiian trading post” was Russian. But not for long. Alexander I really don’t understand why he needed far Islands. And Nicholas II was sleeping and saw Korea as part of the Russian Empire. The story went differently.
Peter and overseas dreams
The Russian Tsar wanted to become equal with European colleagues. And this required overseas territory. Only then he could be called not just by the Emperor, and ruler of the colonial powers. And luck came into the hands of Peter, to see him asked someone Daniel Wilster.
A small digression. Wilster was born in Copenhagen. Being a man of bright and enterprising, before the visit to Peter he managed to do some fighting for the Danes against the Swedes, for the Swedes against the Danes. And the icing on the cake was the participation in the Northern war against Russia. And here Wilster in St. Petersburg. No, he didn’t come to repent before the Russian Emperor for the sins of the “voluntary or involuntary”, he had a business proposition.
Intrigued Peter agreed to devote time to the shuffler. And he told the Emperor of the Kingdom, located in Madagascar. Supposedly, the pirate gangs there United in the state and crave the protection of strong power. What? Of Course, Russia! (There is a version that during a conversation Daniel paints retold book Defoe “king of the pirates, or Report about the glorious deeds of captain Avery, the self-proclaimed Emperor of Madagascar, in two of his handwritten letters”. True or not — we’ll never know.) However, the Russian Emperor decided to lay their hands distant Madagascar.
And although Peter was called Wilster “honest and vysokoparnym flagship”, decided to play it safe. Not wanted on the Kingdom of learned Europeans. And yet to sail preparing two ships, the Dane was fortress Rogervik. By the time he became Vice-Admiral and was appointed to the Admiralty Board. The Emperor was so much afraid of the publicity of the upcoming expedition, Madagascar, neither in correspondence nor in the documents was not mentioned. And sailing ships (the military) went under the trade flags. Besides the island they were supposed to not get in a traditional way across the channel and passing through the British Isles from the North.
At the end of 1723 from revel came two 32-gun frigate: “Amsterdam Galey” and “Dacron de Lude”. They were commanded by captain Cold and Wilster with his assistant. Received a few minutes before the departure provisions in the envelopes they were supposed to open in the North sea.
Peter in the shipyards in Amsterdam
Despite the mistrust, Peter Wilster it has made it a priority to establish contact with the ruler of Madagascar. So, to establish diplomatic and trade relations. More from the Dane was required to persuade the monarch to visit St. Petersburg. Had Wilster and another job that is not associated with Madagascar. The order stated that after visiting the island the ships had to go to Bengal to establish diplomatic relations with the Mughal. Peter believed that the Dane will cope…
However far away the frigates could not, appeared to flow. I had to go back. However, neither Peter nor Wilster from venture refused. For a new expedition started to prepare the frigate “Prince Eugene” and “Cruiser”. But Peter the great died, Russia had no overseas colonies.
In General, this idea initially didn’t make sense. First, there is no Kingdom in Madagascar was not (only scattered communities of pirates, decaying). And to enter into negotiations with the Great Mogul is unlikely to happen: the region has already firmly established the British against the French, and the competition they were useless. So Madagascar “crane” was originally inaccessible.
Meaningless “project function”
George Schaeffer, a German in Russian service, was the representative of the Russian-American company (RAC), which was in charge of the Alaska and Kamchatka. He became the main proponent of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to the Russian Empire. And he acted not by divine decree, and on their own initiative.
Following the saying “strike while the iron is hot”, Schaeffer immediately ordered to build three fortresses. They were named Alexander I, Elizabeth (in honor of the wife of the Emperor) and Barclay de Tolly. A local river with a tricky title Hanapepe dubbed Don. Mentally and in Russian
To one of the Islands was sent to the ship “Bering”. The skipper Benita instructed to establish with the leader of Tolomeo (Kameamea) trade relations. But the ship to the target is not reached, sank. The entire shipment goes to the enterprising leader of the Tomari — the main rival of Tolomeo. CANCER demanded the return of the goods from the ship, but Tomari was denied. Then the problem started Schaeffer. First, he decided to establish contact with Tolomeo, but the venture failed. Then the Germans switched to Tomari. When he arrived on the island, it turned out that the leader and his wife is sick. What kind of disease they suffer is unknown, but Sheffer cured them. In gratitude, the natives agreed to all the proposals of German, not even resisted Russian settlement. Following the saying “strike while the iron is hot”, Schaeffer immediately ordered to build three fortresses. They were named Alexander I, Elizabeth (in honor of the wife of the Emperor) and Barclay de Tolly. A local river with a tricky title Hanapepe dubbed Don. Mentally and in Russian.
In General, the German treatment Tomari did the best: the natives were obliged annually to send Russian ship with gifts as a token of friendship, and all the sandalwood trees passed to the office of Schaeffer. Russia is required to allocate to the leader of some soldiers and a couple of ships to show the hateful, Tolomeo gruel. Plus the promise of patronage. Once Schaeffer and Tomari took care of all the details, in the Islands was the flag of the Russian Empire.
And then intervened in the case of our native Russian bureaucracy. First, Alexander Baranov, head CANCER, suddenly refused to Finance the construction of ships for Tomari. He explained his action by the fact that the alleged Hawaiian Islands are already taken over Britain. But everyone knew that it not so. Then Alexander I sent Shaffer a letter in which he refused to take the natives under his wing.
However, the Tsar soon changed his mind. In his name the king presented the gold medal and Ann’s Protestant ribbon with the inscription: “to the Keeper sandwich Islands Tomari as a sign of friendship him to the Russians.”
Confusion in foreign policy led to the fact that the Hawaiian Islands caught the interest of the Americans. At first they were very cautious, slowly increasing the number of their settlements. And when I realized that CANCER doesn’t pay any attention to it, began to treat the natives. Tomari didn’t want to deal with the Americans, but he was not. So soon the Russian flag was lowered, factory eliminated and bowed Schaeffer went to St. Petersburg. He was still hoping that officials and the Emperor come to their senses, because Hawaii was an important and promising point in the entire region. But the miracle did not happen. Alexander I put an end to the “project open”.
On the Islands until the present day are the ruins of the Elizabethan fortress and Fort Schaeffer. So Hawaiian “crane” slipped from the hands of the Russian Empire.
The Vladivostok merchant Julius Briner overestimated their capabilities. Yielding to greed, he bought for a penny right to the use of forest resources along the Yalu river from Korea. And 800 miles, stretching from the Yellow to the sea of Japan, came to him for 20 years. But soon it became Briner a burden, and he resold the rights to a retired officer of a Cavalry regiment Alexander Bezobrazov.
This man made history as a fierce advocate of an aggressive policy in the far East. What he actually repeatedly said to Nicholas II. For example, in 1896 Bezobrazov handed the Emperor a note that brightly painted the prospects of the near future. For example, Alexander was confident in the imminent war with Japan. And therefore was proposed to establish in Manchuria and military posts, giving them their commercials. And then quietly to invade Korea. And if the Emperor is in the soul shared the idea Bezobrazov (dream of Ultrasii did not give him peace), the Minister of Finance Sergei Witte opposed. And the Emperor had to agree with him. Nevertheless, in the same year, Russia sent to Seoul’s military and financial advisors and opened a Bank. And most importantly — was able to enter the army. In General, the bridgehead was established.
“Bezobrazov” studied Korea about 100 days. The report stated: “I Saw a lot of resources, wonderful forests of larch and cedar: three million acres — a lot of gold, silver, red copper, iron, coal”
In 1901, 800 Korean miles became the property of the Russian timber company. Bezobrazov once again shared with the Emperor the thoughts of a puppet state, which literally suggests in his hands. Nicholas II had the courage to gamble. He appointed Bezobrazov responsible for the success of a special expedition.
“Bezobrazov” studied Korea about 100 days. The report stated: “I Saw a lot of resources, wonderful forests of larch and cedar — three million acres — a lot of gold, silver, red copper, iron, coal.”
This is truly a fantastic company, one of those fantastic projects, which have always struck the imagination of Nicholas II, always prone to chimerical ideas
The following year was given the green light for preparatory work. 1500 Russian soldiers dressed as lumberjacks headed to colonize a new territory. It is curious that “Longhorn” was guarded by several hundred Chinese. Hired them for masking. The Russian upper classes raged. Witte tried to prove to the Emperor that the state is not financially able to do any war, any “development” of Korea. The Minister dared to go against the will of the Emperor and successfully lost the post. Disgraced Witte supported Izvolsky, Minister of foreign Affairs: “It’s absolutely fantastic company, one of those fantastic projects, which have always struck the imagination of Nicholas II, always prone to chimerical ideas”. But the opinion of General Kuropatkin: “the Emperor wants not only about the annexation of Manchuria and Korea, but even the invasion of Afghanistan, Persia and Tibet.”
But Nicholas was adamant. He built Bezobrazov office of the state Secretary of His Majesty and strongly encouraged the work of Alexander Mikhailovich.
And he turned to the fullest. Although the forest harvested, the bulk of the “Longhorn” studied territory. Soon removed the Chinese — they were replaced by Russian soldiers. At this time in the Empire, unrest began. The Emperor hoped that success in the “Korean question” will bring him much-needed points. So withdraw the troops (including from Manchuria), he refused, exacerbating already difficult relations with Japan and China. In 1903, Nicholas ordered the construction of military buildings. Russia has come under strong external pressure, especially from the Japanese and the British. And in most of the country fared worse. The seizure of Korea was threatened with stones in the pocket of the drowned man. Therefore, in case of emergency “loggers” left a foreign country. And immediately drew the Americans that gave Korea to Japan. Of course, the Russo-Korean Bank was liquidated, advisers, and soldiers were asked to remove from Seoul. While the Russian Empire was ahead of the “small victorious war”, and then… and then ambitious “crane” Nicholas II swung his huge wings and disappeared into the clouds, beckoning behind him, and the Emperor and the country.
How Russia colonized New Guinea, we wrote in a previous article.